Black Hawk – 1767–1838
Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kiakiak— Black Hawk—was chief of the so-called “British Band” of the Sauk and Fox tribe of Illinois, Wisconsin, and Iowa. His resistance to white settlement of Indian land ceded to the government by a fraudulent 1804 treaty triggered the Black Hawk War of 1832, which resulted in the massacre of many of his followers. Black, Hugo (1886–1971) As associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court from 1937 to 1971, Black championed the Bill of Rights as an absolute
guarantee of civil liberties. Equally important was his argument that the Fourteenth Amendment extended the authority of the Bill of Rights to state
governments as well as the federal government, neither of which was to be allowed to impinge upon individual freedom.