John Quincy Adams – 1767–1848
Son of John Adams, J. Q. Adams was a formidable diplomat who, as secretary of state under President James Monroe, formulated the Monroe Doctrine, by which the president served notice on all European powers that any attempt to colonize or interfere with any state in the Western Hemisphere would be treated as an attack on the United States. As a president, Adams was a visionary, who proposed creating a national university and a national astronomical observatory, creating a federal trust
for the western territories, and using federal funds to build national roads. Unique among U.S. presidents, Adams went on to serve in the House of Representatives from 1831 until his death, taking a strong stand against slavery.